Expanded Functionality of this Blog

Several Changes have taken place to expand the functionality and your access to the information contained within this blog.

1) A downloadable app for the I Phone & Android so while you are hiking or driving you have the information and images at your fingertips.   Download Here

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2) We have set up a new website FOUR CORNERS EXCURSIONS.COM  or to be exact http://www.fourcornersexcursions.com or those of you viewing this on a smart phone can go with QR readers can scan here:

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As usual you can still follow us on our new Facebook @ https://www.facebook.com/HikingTheSouthwest

our sister blog  Hiking The Southwest

and last highlighting the photography and still under development @ Southwest Photography by Bill Kettler

Any further updates will be published as they come along

San Rafael Swell, UT

San Rafael Swell - Vertical Mine Shaft

History and Activities: Historically, the Swell was crossed by various expeditions during the exploration of the West but received virtually no permanent settlement. More recently, the area has seen sporadic mining operations – principally for uranium (most intensively around the Temple Mountain area) but also for small amounts of copper, silver, oil and gas; otherwise, ranching has been and continues to be the only major use of the land. Herds of wild horses and burros roam the plains, and bighorn sheep may sometimes be spotted in the canyons. Most of the tracks across the swell result from prospectors in the early to mid twentieth century, and these provided the only access until 1972, when the interstate was constructed, dividing the region in two.

San Rafael Swell - Vertical Mine Shaft

Various exits now allow easy entrance to the middle section and link with the old tracks, most of which are good for regular vehicles and quite well signposted. Hiking and exploring are the main reasons to visit nowadays – there are trails to mountains, historic sites, old mines and the numerous canyons – these offer experiences ranging from extended, strenuous trips like the hike through the Black Boxes of the San Rafael River to easy walks such as that down Little Wild Horse Canyon.

San Rafael Swell -  Mine Shaft

Temple Mountain: The most accessible area of the San Rafael Swell is around Temple Mountain in the southeast, beside the road to Goblin Valley State Park. Half way to the park (6 miles from UT 24), a side track branches off westwards and cuts right through the reef, the only such road along the whole eastern edge apart from interstate 70. There are many good places for free camping either side of the road, all with nice views over the reef and the San Rafael Desert – a good alternative to staying at the Goblin Valley campground, where the fees are $15 a night. The road becomes unpaved but still fine for all vehicles as it follows the canyon of South Temple Wash into the reef, where multicolored walls of Wingate sandstone rise up to 500 feet. Two sections of the cliffs on the north side have quite impressive pictograph panels, though mixed with modern graffiti. The cliffs recede on the far side of the reef to reveal an angular landscape of numerous red ridges, ravines and cliffs, with a prominent peak to the north. This is Temple Mountain – site of one of the main mining areas in the Swell, it was in use from 1910 to about 1960, extracting large amounts of uranium ore from strata of the Chinle formation. Many shafts, stone buildings, spoil heaps, rusty iron equipment and other debris remain in place, plus a large winch tower, and a walk around the mountain on old mine roads makes for an interesting hike of 2 hours or so. The rocky badlands beneath the mountain are also strewn with many pieces of petrified wood, the Chinle sandstone being the same formation as found in Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. The old tracks branch off the main road at the site of Temple Mountain village, a settlement that was built to service the miners and once included a gas station and general store, though little trace remains today.

San Rafael Swell

Access: The largest town nearby is Green River, 18 miles east of the reef on I-70; this is also a convenient base from which to explore the Canyonlands region to the southeast and Desolation Canyon to the north. The town has a selection of shops and cheap motels, and the John Wesley Powell River Museum – besides its interesting exhibits this has a good selection of local books and topographic maps. UT 24 and its side roads give access to the southern swell, and along here is found Goblin Valley State Park, the most visited site in this area. The northern half falls between US 191/6 and UT 10 and amongst the routes heading inwards is the unpaved Buckhorn Draw Road which leads to the single most impressive viewpoint – the Wedge Overlook from where many square miles of eroded canyons around the San Rafael River are viewable.

Cooking with Cattail

Cattail
Cooking with Cattail Shoots

In early spring, cattails send up small, immature shoots that are rich and succulent and taste a bit like zucchini. These first sprigs of fresh cattail can be put into stir-fries, soups, pasta sauces, or any other recipe that calls for fresh, green vegetables. My favorite preferred use is in Asian-style stir fries. Their taste especially complements the texture and flavor of water chestnuts.

Cooking with Cattail Hearts

When cattail shoots mature in mid spring, the rich “heart” at the base of the leaf-blades becomes full of nutrients. These can be used in the same contexts as cattail shoots, but will lend a slightly stronger flavor and crunchier texture. A cattail heart’s texture is something like a cross between a bamboo shoot and an artichoke heart, and its flavor is like a cross between a rutabaga and a melon rind. They are ideal for pickling and canning.

Cooking with Cattail Heads

One of my all-time favorite foods is what I call “cat on the cob”, a delightful dish that tastes remarkably similar to sweet, white corn. Immature cattail heads that do not yet have a cotton-like texture– best harvested in early summer— are tasty and wonderful additions to any meal. They can be boiled or put into soups and stir-fries, but I prefer to cook them in a buttered skillet over medium heat and serve them in place of corn.


Cooking with Cattail Pollen

When the flowers, or heads, of the cattail plant mature in mid-summer, their pollen can be gathered and used in the same context as corn starch. The pollen gives an excellent flavor to breads and pancakes when it is added to flours, or it can be used as a thickener in gravies, soups, and
stews. Its flavor is mild and barely noticeable, but it makes a fine addition to the pantry of any foraging chef.

Cooking with Cattail Roots
The cream of the cattail crop is its rhizome, or root, which can be harvested any time between late fall and early spring. Cattails store starches in their roots over winter, similarly to potatoes and carrots, and provide a succulant, fibrous meal base when the root is properly harvested. These rhizomes can be prepared like potatoes or used along with them. Cattail roots make a great addition to mashed potatoes, greens, and root-bakes.
Regardless of the route you choose for cooking cattails, be sure that you have properly identified the plant. While there are few poisonous plants that resemble the cattail at any stage of life, it is still critical that all foragers cook wild plants only if they are certain that it has been accurately identified.
When the flowers, or heads, of the cattail plant mature in mid-summer, their pollen can be gathered and used in the same context as corn starch. The pollen gives an excellent flavor to breads and pancakes when it is added to flours, or it can be used as a thickener in gravies, soups, and
stews. Its flavor is mild and barely noticeable, but it makes a fine addition to the pantry of any foraging chef.


Dandelion fritters

Dandelion
During, spring in Michigan one of my favorite activities was making and eating dandelion flower fritters.
The simple dandelion is one of my favorite herbs.   This plant is tenacious, despite many folk’s best efforts to eradicate them from their lawns this plant has so much to offer.
They are easy to pick and so bright and cheery on a sunny day.  Pick these in the sunshine when they are open, and when you have time to make the fritters right after gathering.
Find a bowl, and mix together one egg and one cup of milk.  Stir in a cup of flour and your fritter batter is ready to go.  (If you like your fritters sweet you can add a little maple syrup or honey.)
Now, prepare a skillet on the stove with gently warmed olive oil – keep it over medium heat.
Take one of the flowers and hold it by the greens at the base of the flower petals. Dip the petals into the batter and twirl until the flower is covered.
Drop it into the skillet, flower side down.  Continue dipping and dropping flowers, checking the first ones every once in a while to see if they are brown.  When they’ve lightly browned, flip them over and brown them on the other side.
When they’re brown on both sides remove them from the skillet and drain the excess oil on paper towel.
For a sweet treat, drizzle them with maple syrup, honey, jam, or powdered sugar.  For savory fritters try dipping in mustard or adding some savory herbs to the batter.
A second method for fritter making is to pull the dandelion flower petals from the green base and add the petals to the batter.  Then you can cook them up just like pancakes.
Not only are the fritters delicious, the dandelion flowers are good for your heart.  Dandelion flower tea can help relieve pain from headaches, menstrual cramps, backaches, stomachaches and depression.  The rest of the plant (greens and roots) has nourishing, healing properties as well, the younger greens are great boiled and eaten as you would eat boiled spinach. So, once you’ve fallen in love with the flowers, consider seeking out further information.

Save 10% on RedRock Back Country Adventures

Save 10% @ RedRock Backcountry Adventures

The Moon, AZ – GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and Dinosaurs
The 1.7 million acres of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has history, literally, right at your feet. Within the boundaries of this national monument, fossil records of the earth and its inhabitants dating back more than 70 million years. These fossil records show that this arid desert has been an ocean, lake and swamp. Paleontologists have shown this through the fossils they have found. Fossil types include fish, turtles, sharks teeth, plant life and dinosaurs. Several of the dinosaurs were first discovered at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. Several dinosaur tracks have also been found throughout the monument. Professional digs in the area completed as recently as 2001 have lead to some of very exciting dinosaur finds. In fact, the paleontologists that have done work in the area say that Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has the highest concentrations of dinosaur fossils found anywhere in the world. You can go fossil hunting and explore the history of the earth, but remember to leave what you find so that others may have the same exciting experience.
The Moon - GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument

The Moon - GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and Dinosaurs
The 1.7 million acres of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has history, literally, right at your feet. Within the boundaries of this national monument, fossil records of the earth and its inhabitants dating back more than 70 million years. These fossil records show that this arid desert has been an ocean, lake and swamp. Paleontologists have shown this through the fossils they have found. Fossil types include fish, turtles, sharks teeth, plant life and dinosaurs. Several of the dinosaurs were first discovered at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. Several dinosaur tracks have also been found throughout the monument. Professional digs in the area completed as recently as 2001 have lead to some of very exciting dinosaur finds. In fact, the paleontologists that have done work in the area say that Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has the highest concentrations of dinosaur fossils found anywhere in the world.
The Moon - GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument

The Moon - GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument

You can go fossil hunting and explore the history of the earth, but remember to leave what you find so that others may have the same exciting experience.
Directions by Google can be obtained here
Published in: on October 12, 2009 at 1:20 PM  Comments Off on The Moon, AZ – GrandStaircase Escalante National Monument  
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Natural Bridges National Monument, UT

Natural Bridges National Monument covers a relatively small area in southeast Utah, close to scenic highway UT 95 between Hanksville and Blanding. It is rather remote and not close to other parks so is not heavily visited, despite being near many fine, lesser known places in this part of the state such as White Canyon, Cedar Mesa, Grand Gulch Plateau and the La Sal Mountains. Unlike Arches National Park, with over 2,000 classified arches, there are only three bridges here though the monument also contains Anasazi cliff dwellings, pictographs and white sandstone canyons. Natural bridges are formed by running water and hence are much rarer than arches, which result from a variety of other erosional forces. This is also the reason why bridges tend to be found within deep canyons, sometimes quite hidden, whereas arches are usually high and exposed, often the last remnants of cliffs and ridges.

Natural Bridges National Monument, UT

Natural Bridges National Monument, UT

Location:  The bridges are reached by UT 275, a 4 mile side road forking off UT 95 close to the junction with UT 261 from Mexican Hat. The closest major town is Blanding, 38 miles east. Like all roads in this area, highway 275 crosses a flat, pinyon-juniper covered plateau around 6,500 feet in elevation – the top of the white Cedar Mesa sandstone layer – and bordered in most directions by distant red cliffs. The monument has a small visitor center

Natural Bridges National Monument, UT

Natural Bridges National Monument, UT

Published in: on July 13, 2009 at 3:39 PM  Comments Off on Natural Bridges National Monument, UT  
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Butler Wash Anasazi Ruins, UT

Butler Wash Anasazi Ruins

Butler Wash Anasazi Ruins

14 miles southwest of Blanding, Utah on Highway 95

This is an easy stop on the way to Natural Bridges National Monument.
Mule Canyon Ruins is 6 miles west.

No Admission Fee | Open Year Round Location

Butler Wash Ruins Overlook is accessed from Utah Highway 95 just west of Blanding. After parking, an easy half-mile walk across slickrock is required before arriving at the overview of Anasazi cliff houses.

Description

Butler Wash Ruins are cliff dwellings that were built and occupied by the Anasazi about 1200 AD. The site has been stabilized and reconstructed to some degree, but most of it remains as it was found in the 1800s.

The structures here represent the full range of Anasazi daily activities: habitation, farming, ceremonial, hunting, storage and tool making. The site has 4 kivas, underground chambers where ceremonial activities were held, located toward the front of the largest caves. Habitation and storage rooms are visible behind them and in various niches and caves around the canyon.

Three of the kivas are of the round, Mesa Verde type most common in this area. The fourth is square, indicative of the Kayenta culture to the south in Arizona. The ceramics found at Butler Wash are exclusively of the Mesa Verde type.

The Anasazi here, as elsewhere, were dry farmers who utilized extremely efficient means of water conservation to grow corns, beans and squash in the deep alluvial soils of the canyon area. It is possible that at some point, a cycle of deep erosion cut arroyos, lowered the water table and made irrigation impossible. But whether by drought, overpopulation, eroding resources or warring neighbors, the village was abandoned before 1300.

Butler Wash is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. For more information, contact:

BLM Monticello Field Office
435 North Main
PO Box 7
Monticello, Utah 84535
435-587-1500

Africanized bees or killer bees

 

No Image Available

No Image Available

 

 

As the number of Africanized bee colonies increases in an area, so, too, does the likelihood of human and animal encounters with them. Serious human injury can be avoided if the habits of Africanized bees are learned and precautions taken.
Wear light-colored clothing. Bees tend to attack dark things. Dark clothing, dark hair, any thing dark in color could draw the animus of AHB.
Bees are sensitive to odors, both pleasant and unpleasant. The smell of newly cut grass has been shown to disturb honey bees. Avoid wearing floral or citrus aftershaves or perfume.
Check your house and yard at least once a month to see if there are any signs of bees taking up residence. If you do find a swarm or colony, leave it be and keep family and pets away. Find a pest control company or a local beekeeper to solve the problem.
To help prevent honey bees from building a colony in your house or yard, fill all cracks and crevices in walls with steel wool and caulk. Remove piles of refuse, honey bees will nest in an old soda can or an overturned flower pot. Fill holes in the ground.
When hiking, avoid hiking off trails. Bring some bug spray, bee spray, a GPS, and your cell phone with you just in case.
Be alert for bees acting strangely. If one or two start to bump at you, especially at your head, take notice and possibly vacate the vicinity.
 
How can I escape an attack by Africanized Honey Bees?
Obviously, it is best to avoid contact with Africanized Honey Bees. But if contact becomes unavoidable, it is important to know what to do.
Bees target the head, and nearly all those who suffer serious stinging incidents with Africanized Bees are overcome by stings to the head and face.
The best method of escaping a bee attack is to cover your head and run for shelter.
Any covering for your body, especially for your head and face, will help you escape. A small handkerchief or mosquito net device that fits over the head could easily be carried in a pocket.
If you do not have these, grab a blanket, coat, towel, anything that will give you momentary relief while you look for an avenue of escape.
If you have nothing else, pull your shirt up over your face. The stings you may get on your chest and abdomen are far less serious than those to the facial area.
If one or two bees start agressively bumping you, pay attention.
Try to find shelter as soon as possible. Take refuge in a house, tent or a car with the windows and doors closed.
DO NOT JUMP INTO WATER! Bees will wait for you to come up for air. They have been discouraged by water from a spraying hose, however. Spray water from the hose onto yourself and overhead. If you can get into a shower that will help as well.
Once you are away from the bees, evaluate the situation. If you have been stung more than 15 times, or if you are having any symptoms other than local pain and swelling, seek medical attention immediately. Ice has been said to help with the swelling.
If you see someone else being stung or think others are in danger, call 911 immediately.
Remove stingers as soon as possible to lessen the amount of venom entering the body. Scrape stingers off the skin with a blunt instrument or plastic card. Do not remove bee stingers with fingers or tweezers – this only forces toxins into the victim’s body.
As the number of Africanized bee colonies increases in an area, so, too, does the likelihood of human and animal encounters with them. Serious human injury can be avoided if the habits of Africanized bees are learned and precautions taken.
Wear light-colored clothing. Bees tend to attack dark things. Dark clothing, dark hair, any thing dark in color could draw the animus of Africanized Honey Bees.
Bees are sensitive to odors, both pleasant and unpleasant. The smell of newly cut grass has been shown to disturb honey bees. Avoid wearing floral or citrus aftershaves or perfume.
Check your house and yard at least once a month to see if there are any signs of bees taking up residence. If you do find a swarm or colony, leave it be and keep family and pets away. Find a pest control company or a local beekeeper to solve the problem.
To help prevent honey bees from building a colony in your house or yard, fill all cracks and crevices in walls with steel wool and caulk. Remove piles of refuse, honey bees will nest in an old soda can or an overturned flower pot. Fill holes in the ground.
When hiking, avoid hiking off trails. Bring some bug spray, bee spray, a GPS, and your cell phone with you just in case.
Be alert for bees acting strangely. If one or two start to bump at you, especially at your head, take notice and possibly vacate the vicinity.
 
How can I escape an attack by Africanized Honey Bees?
Obviously, it is best to avoid contact with Africanized Honey Bees. But if contact becomes unavoidable, it is important to know what to do.
Bees target the head, and nearly all those who suffer serious stinging incidents with Africanized Bees are overcome by stings to the head and face.
The best method of escaping a bee attack is to cover your head and run for shelter.
Any covering for your body, especially for your head and face, will help you escape. A small handkerchief or mosquito net device that fits over the head could easily be carried in a pocket.
If you do not have these, grab a blanket, coat, towel, anything that will give you momentary relief while you look for an avenue of escape.
If you have nothing else, pull your shirt up over your face. The stings you may get on your chest and abdomen are far less serious than those to the facial area.
If one or two bees start agressively bumping you, pay attention.
Try to find shelter as soon as possible. Take refuge in a house, tent or a car with the windows and doors closed.
DO NOT JUMP INTO WATER! Bees will wait for you to come up for air.
They have been discouraged by water from a spraying hose, however. Spray water from the hose onto yourself and overhead. If you can get into a shower that will help as well.
Once you are away from the bees, evaluate the situation. If you have been stung more than 15 times, or if you are having any symptoms other than local pain and swelling, seek medical attention immediately. Ice has been said to help with the swelling.
If you see someone else being stung or think others are in danger, call 911 immediately.
Remove stingers as soon as possible to lessen the amount of venom entering the body. Scrape stingers off the skin with a blunt instrument or plastic card. Do not remove bee stingers with fingers or tweezers – this only forces toxins into the victim’s body.

Jacob Hamblin

 

Jacob Hamblin

Jacob Hamblin

 

Known as a missionary and friend of the Indians, Jacob Hamblin played an integral role in helping smooth relations between Indians and Mormon settlers throughout the West and in establishing the cotton mission in Southern Utah. He served as both a peacekeeper and a community builder.

Born April 6, 1819 in Salem, Ohio to parents who were farmers, Hamblin learned farming in his youth. In the fall of 1839, he married Lucinda Taylor (They separated in February 1849). He joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in March 1842 after hearing the preaching of a few missionaries. Hamblin became a missionary himself almost immediately and soon moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, church headquarters at the time.

Hamblin became one of the first pioneers to cross the plains to Utah in 1847. He first settled in Tooele, a small ranching community west of Salt Lake City. He married Rachel Judd on September 30, 1849. In 1853, when Hamblin’s gun would not fire during a skirmish with Native Americans, it inspired him to stop fighting the Indians, and instead to live among them and work with them. While in Tooele, Hamblin built an excellent relationship with the local Indians, learning to speak the Pauite and Ute languages. This led to his eventual call as a missionary to the Native Americans of Southern Utah in 1854.

Upon arrival in southwestern Utah, Hamblin helped build a fort in the small community of Santa Clara, located just upriver from St. George. Contrary to the region’s current reputation of a resort and retirement hotspot, back then Utah’s Dixie was difficult to settle because of its harsh desert environment, which included less than 10 inches of annual rainfall and summer temperatures that regularly climbed to 110° F. Early settlers also had to deal with floods, one of which washed away three of the Santa Clara fort’s walls in 1862. Hamblin and his family dismantled the remaining wall and used its materials to build a two-story adobe, sandstone and ponderosa pine home just down river from the former fort. Completed in 1863, the Jacob Hamblin home is one of the few pioneer-era homes still standing in the area. Early residents utilized its large upstairs room as a school and community center. Hamblin held great stature in the community, serving as a father figure to many. Today, Hamblin’s home in Santa Clara is open daily for tours conducted by LDS missionaries.

Just as he did in Tooele, Hamblin became a friend to the local Indians and help ease relations between them and Mormon settlers. He gained the Native Americans trust and confidence. The Indians always honored their agreements with Hamblin. One of his most notable accomplishments in making peace with the Indians was the negotiation of the Treaty of Fort Defiance, New Mexico in November 1870. Hamblin also frequently visited Hopi villages in northern Arizona, which led to the reopening of “Crossing of the Fathers,” a key passage on the Colorado River.

Hamblin married two other women, Sarah Priscilla Leavitt (September 1857) and Louisa Boneli (November 1865), and fathered 24 children, taking in several others through adoption. After passage of the Edmunds Act of 1882, which outlawed polygamy, Hamblin became a fugitive in the eyes of the U.S. government. He went into hiding to avoid capture, staying with families in Arizona, New Mexico and Chihuahua, Mexico to evade federal agents. Hamblin died in Pleasanton, New Mexico on August 31, 1886. He is buried in Alpine, Arizona.

n late August, Hamblin was traveling north to Salt Lake City in company with LDS Apostle George A. Smith. Smith had been dispatched to the southern Mormon colonies to warn of the approaching United States army and recommend that the colonists not trade with any non-Mormons then traveling through their territory. He also counseled that they prepare to flee to the mountains if required. At Corn Creek nearFillmore, Utah, Smith, Hamblin, and Thales Haskell encountered the ill-fated Fancher party, a wagon train of Arkansans en route to California. Upon their questioning about the road ahead and a place to rest their cattle, Hamblin suggested that they stop further south in the grassyMountain Meadows, where he maintained a homestead. This was a traditional stopping point on the Old Spanish Trail leading from New Mexico to California. Hamblin and company then continued on to Salt Lake City where he stayed for roughly a week to “conduct Indian business and take a plural wife.” This “Indian business” included bringing a delegation of Southern Paiutes to meet with LDS church leaders. These were then authorized to steal cattle from travelers on the road to California as a part of Brigham Young’s Utah War strategy. In Salt Lake City, Hamblin was also informed that the Fanchers had allegedly “behaved badly” and had “robbed hen-roosts, and been guilty of other irregularities, and had used abusive language to those who had remonstrated with them. It was also reported that they threatened, when the army came into the north end of the Territory, to get a good outfit from the weaker settlements in the south.

On his way home, Hamblin became aware through rumors among the Indians of the slaughter of the Fancher Party in the infamous Mountain Meadows massacre. In fact, on his trail south, he met John D. Lee who was on his way to Salt Lake City. In both his autobiography and his testimony at the second trial of Lee for the massacre, Hamblin claimed that to his great distress, Lee admitted to him his role in the killings along with other whites although he placed the blame for the attack on the Paiutes. Many accept Hamblin’s account of his meeting with Lee as he was well known for honesty. However, others believe that Hamblin either did not give a full accounting of events or his testimony amounted to perjury and was given to implicate Lee while shielding other Mormons. Indeed, in his book Mormonism Unveiled, an embittered John D. Lee refers to Hamblin as “Dirty Fingered Jake,” and spins tales of Hamblin’s attempts to waylay non-Mormon travelers in Utah, kill them, and take their property. He relates, “Hamblin was in Salt Lake City when the Mountain Meadows Massacre took place, and he pretends to have great sympathy with and sorrow for their fate. I can only judge what he would have done towards the massacre had he been home by what he did to help the next train that passed that way.”

As Hamblin continued south towards Santa Clara, he was told that a band of Paiutes was planning to attack a second wagon train, the Duke party. Perhaps believing Lee’s account that the Indians were primarily responsible for the Mountain Meadows massacre, he quickly returned south to prevent another slaughter. He recounts that he did not himself overtake that wagon train, but as he had been traveling very quickly without sleep he sent Samuel Knight and Dudley Leavitt before him. These overtook the train and were able to negotiate with the Paiutes wherein the Indians took the trains’ loose cattle (nearly 500 head) and left the train in peace. Knight and Leavitt continued with the company and saw it safely through to California. Hamblin was later able to return that stock not killed to the Duke party after conferring with those Indians involved. Again, some dispute Hamblin’s account and claim that in fact he organized the Paiute raid on the Dukes, though only to gain their cattle and not to harm any of the travelers. Indeed, the taking of cattle and burning army wagons seems to have been the primary Mormon tactic of the Utah War. However, Hamblin’s direct complicity seems unlikely as he was traveling from Salt Lake City at the time of the first attacks, and he later returned to the party at least a portion of those cattle taken after writing to their owners in California. Whatever the case may be, Hamblin spent the rest of 1857 and early 1858 shepherding non-Mormons through Utah on the trail to California and Mormons returning to Utah from outlying settlements in order to participate in its defense should the army attack.

After the conclusion of the Utah War , Hamblin claims to have been willing to testify to his knowledge of the Massacre at the behest of Apostle Smith. However, due to the amnesty proclaimed by the President of the United States to the Mormons, the new governor, Alfred Cumming, did not wish to discuss the matter. He did, however, testify at John D. Lee’s second trial for the massacre in 1876.

Published in: on April 21, 2009 at 5:09 AM  Comments Off on Jacob Hamblin  
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